Poultry Farming for Beginners(Practical Guide For Beginners and Pros)

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Poultry Farm Business in Nigeria is one of the most lucrative business opportunity and a wise investment choice for many aspiring entrepreneur (especially young ones). That is why I have decided to write on “poultry farming for beginners”.

Because of its numerous benefits and high return on investment (ROI), starting and running a good poultry farm has now become a dream of almost every person in our dear own country. A great agribusiness that comes to the mind of many investors or entrepreneur.

It is the wildest, lucrative and the most profitable livestock farming business that has ever existed. These are some facts we know about poultry farming business.

But are these things true or false????

Poultry farming embraces the breeding of domesticated birds (hens, cocks, goose, ducks, guinea fowl, turkeys etc.) for the purpose of meat and egg production intended for human consumption. The need to provide sufficient animal protein for the human race is the primary concern to animal scientists and vegetarians. Nutritionists and Agriculturists generally agreed that developing the poultry industry in Nigeria is the fastest means of breaching the gap of protein deficiency growing in the country.

How to start poultry farming in Nigeria?

If starting a profitable commercial poultry farming business has been your life-long dream, then this guide will put you through the practicality of poultry farming business. By the time you are done reading this poultry farming guide, you’d be better equipped with knowledge that can help you know the right things to do before getting started or if not to start this agribusiness at all.

Truth is, poultry farming becomes profitable if properly set up and managed while under the best and needed poultry farm management skills. It is a business that anyone can engage and make money out of it. You can start at any level (small, medium or large) and expand your business as you grow bigger.  The most important thing is that you are passionate about your chosen niche and making moves to make sure your business works.

So, before we begin the practical examination of poultry farming business in Nigeria, let us discuss a few things that an entrepreneur or an investor will need to take note before putting in a huge amount of money.

Why Poultry Farming Business

poultry farming in nigeria

I trust that a lot of things have been said about the reasons why one should consider investing in a poultry farming business and I am not going to re-invent the traditional wheel here, rather I would show to you the pros and cons of the business and may be, just maybe, you’ll be convinced to start one right away.

1.)   Job and Business Opportunity: Commercial poultry farming present many individuals with huge varieties of opportunities that creates, is creating and will still give more jobs and create employments for interested investors.

2.)   Huge Market Demands:  The constant demand in the target market is what presents any business as a profitable one. In a country with over 170 Million consumers that are burning with desire for poultry products every day, the market is always waiting to be tapped. The demand for eggs is so high that the present investors (poultry farmers) cannot meet up and this alone has paved way for more people to come in.

3.)   Food: It is advised in hospitals and medical centres that every child must consume at least one egg per day and with the current population of Nigeria, this is to an advantage for farmers who breed Layers for egg production. Additionally, there have been many issues (health implications) with eating of red meat, and this has further created a window of opportunity for farmers who breed broilers and cockerels which serves as source of white meat and of course, good protein for our body.


5 Possible Income Potentials in poultry farming business

1.)   Layer Benefits – Healthy Layers lay eggs almost every day or at least 4 times a week. Some Breeds can lay as much as 325 eggs within 365 days and take 21 days to hatch. This means that technically, a Layer is capable of producing another chick twice in three days.

So, if you have 1000 healthy layers of good breeds (like the California white), they are capable of reproducing an incredible number of 24,000 chicks within 40 days!

2.)   Chickens grow very fast – Within 21 days, the egg is hatched and after 28 weeks, they are ready for the market. That means a farmer can begin raking in money in just 34 weeks after successfully setting up his farm and whatever profits he makes can be doubled in a year based on this calculation.

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3.)   Chicken sells at a very good price – A fully grown healthy chicken (cockerels) sells between 2,000 to 2,500 naira in Nigeria; broilers cost even more. Therefore, if you produce 24,000 chickens in your farm, you will be making NGN48 million by the time they are completely sold.

4.)   Demand in Egg market– Apart from the chicken, sales of eggs is another cool way to make more money in poultry farming business. Eggs are collected and arranged in egg crates and sold based on the size of the egg and number of holes on the crates. The bigger the size of the egg; the higher its price. Each crate usually contains 30 eggs. Therefore, if you have 1000 layers that produce 24,000 pullets in a month and decide to sell all, you will be making a whooping sum of N400, 000 to N460, 000 per month.

5.)   Poultry Waste– Birds are great poopers; and guess what? Their poop costs a lot. You can own a little farm close to your poultry house where you use their poop as manure or sell it off to farmers per KG.

Factors Affecting Poultry Farming for Beginners in Nigeria

Poultry products are a great affordable source of animal protein to every human being and a good means of creating wealth to nations and its citizens. But unfortunately the producers (farmers) of these products are facing a lot of problems and challenges. And these are challenges that entrepreneurs (especially beginner ones) must take note of before diving fully into the business of egg and meat productions.

1.)   Financial Inadequacies: Although, you can start on a small scale and still make money, poultry farming business is a capital intensive business and it’s like trading money to make money. Therefore, the higher the money invested in poultry farming business, the higher the ROI (return on investment). And this might pose as a crucial challenge for the low income earners that want to start poultry farming. Low capital has been one major problem facing the poultry farming business across Africa and the world.

2.)   Farmer’s Level of Education: Running a profitable poultry farming business requires the entrepreneur (farmer) possess first-hand quality information about how to properly set up and manage his farm to yield more products which will result in more profits. Lack of technical know-how skill of ways to handle modern poultry farming equipment and lack of quality education on poultry processing has also contributed immensely to the low production of poultry products.

3.)   Poor Marketing Strategy: Poor marketing strategy is a real big time problem facing countless agribusiness industries in Nigeria. Almost all farmers are still finding it difficult to develop a good plan to market their farm products as fast as possible to double up their profits.

4.)   Poultry Farming Diseases and Pests: Outbreak of pest and diseases in poultry farming is another serious challenge that has made a lot of farmers quit their dreams in this industry. As a farmer, you should be more vigilant about dangerous diseases pests like snakes, racoon and stray dogs and against harmful diseases such as Newcastle, Gumboro and others.

5.)   Poultry Feeds and Feeding: Majority of the financial expenses on poultry farming are spent on feeding. Feeds take up almost 78-80% of capital in poultry farming business. Foreign or imported feeds are highly expensive and if farmer is not careful enough, he might find himself soon spending his profit on feeding his birds. The only way to avoid this is to learn, know how to analyze, formulate and produce your own on-farm feeds.

What You Need To Set Up a Profitable Poultry Farming Business

Poultry farming for beginners in naija holds a lot of potentials for any interested investor and below are what you will need to set up a lucrative one in Nigeria.

  • Well Written Business Plan:I know I am quite young and many older people will argue and say that they have been doing this type of business before I was even born or before my parents met and fell in love but as for me, and most especially the experts that I have worked with, I want to categorically tell you that going into poultry farming business without a well written business plan is like going to fight in a war without a plan( very foolish as you would end up dead before you take 35 steps into battle).


On many occasions and cases, poultry farming Business plan is your blueprint to succeed in this line most of the time. It contains every bits of information about your intended business. Most of the challenges we mentioned above can easily be reduced or avoided with the aid of a well-structured business plan. It is your road-map to make more profit.

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You can get one here or contact us.

  • Select Your Market or Niche:Poultry farm business like I earlier said, is very broad and it is good and safer to start with a niche (specific production) and then grow bigger later. When we talk about poultry farm business, what comes to the mind of most of us is the egg and meat production sector of it. There are also many profitable sub-niches under poultry that any one (beginners included) can tap into and be successful.

Examples of profitable markets in poultry business include but not limited to:

  • broiler breeding (meat production),
  • egg production (layers breeding),
  • hatchery (chicken breeding), production and supplying of poultry feed,
  • poultry farming equipment,
  • poultry products processing,
  • packaging and marketing,
  • Poultry farming business consultancy and others.


  • Select Your Preferred Poultry Breeds: Staying focused is one secret that makes many people successful in poultry farming business. There exist several types of birds that you can farm.


Poultry farming can further be categorized into the types of birds:

  • Domestic fowl or Chicken (Broilers and layers)
  • Turkey
  • Guinea fowl
  • Pigeon, Duck
  • Goose
  • Peacock
  • Quail

Additionally, you may want to decide to breed layers for egg productions or broiler for meat production.  Just be focused and decide the type that will see to the demand of your customers and will make your pocket grow bigger and faster. You can start small to see how effective your poultry farming business plan is on the market and then proceed to expand your investment later on.


  • Poultry Farming System/Housing: Poultry housing system is another aspect of poultry farming business that you must know as a beginner farmer. Haven selected the types of birds that suit you, you must also be aware of the various farming systems that is appropriate to them. Poultry housing system makes up 40% of your success in poultry farming. There are three (3) common types of poultry farming system and these are:
  • Extensive System: This type of system is also known as range and fold unit poultry farming system.
  • Semi Intensive System: It is popularly referred to as the standard semi intensive unit and straw yard.
  • Intensive system: This is the most popular method in Nigeria and Africa and this system features systems like Deep litter, Wire and slated floor, Straw yard and Battery cage

Let us examine these systems one after the other.

Note: Are you still wondering and asking: how to run a poultry farm poultry farm? Please continue reading

poultry farming for beginners

Free Range System-: The free range poultry farming system is a system used to farm birds where the chickens are allowed to roam around on their own in search of food. This type of bird farm system is not suitable for commercial poultry farming because of the high level of risks (theft, killings, exposure to diseases and predators) involved. But this type of farming system is very common in the rural parts of the country where birds are reared for family or personal consumption only.

poultry farming for beginners

Deep Litter System-: This system involves the process of spreading saw dusts or wood shavings on a concrete ground with the chicks placed on the floor and the dust serving as a ‘bed’ or “cushion” for them. The dust is changed regularly, either by complete removal and replacing or by layering.

Deep litter system is used by many poultry farmers because it increases efficiency and makes it easier to manage large flocks of birds but it promotes room for faster spread of diseases when there is an outbreak and also makes it difficult to identify unproductive birds or sick birds amidst the crowds.

how to start poultry farming

Battery Cage System-: In the battery cage system, metal cages are constructed inside a building to house the birds. The cages are usually split into different rooms (compartments) to house small groups of birds’ usually in singles or in pairs. The cages also house the feed and water troughs as well as laying nests.

Bird droppings fall on the ground and are cleaned mechanically by a scraper. Research and survey has proven this method to be the most effective for egg production but the major downside of this method is that it is more expensive to construct and maintain compared to other forms of poultry housing systems.

For commercial poultry farming business, using the intensive system is the best. It helps in efficiency and productivity.

  • Proper Site Selection: This should have been the first item to discuss but because I want you to have the full understanding of what you’re about to put your money into, I had to wait until now to discuss the location or site selection of your poultry farm house.


A carefully chosen good location is another key factor to the success and profitability of your poultry farm business. If you plan to do commercial poultry farming business, there are some things you must consider before siting a poultry farm house.

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Things to Consider before doing Commercial Poultry Farming Business

  • Select an open and quiet place. It’s not sensible and will affect your business drastically if you site your poultry farm within a residential area because of the offensive odour it produces but somewhere still close to the city and open to proper ventilation.
  • Poultry farm should be sited where there’s a large availability of cheap land and at the same time; should be close to cities or towns with high number of population.
  • While siting your poultry farm house, always remember that access to good road and transportation is key to reaching your customers very fast. Keep this in mind too.
  • Always site your poultry farm house in a place that is easily accessible by you and your target customers.


Also, a poultry farm site located in a rural area would have fewer community issues and very cheap but at times, very far to market.

So choose wisely.

  • Selection of Poultry Equipment and Tools: In poultry farming business, there are several tools and equipment’s that you will need to make your work a whole lot easier and also to increase productivity. These are the important facilities that entrepreneurs must put in place in order to properly manage a poultry farm.


As a farmer, you would need to create a house for the birds, make a provision for drinkers and feeders, a good waste disposal system, sources of good water, lightening and heat, egg crates and storage space for keeping feeds and eggs.

You may need one or two of the below listed poultry farm tools:

  • Feeders
  • Drinkers
  • Perches
  • Nests
  • Crates
  • Lighting system
  • Waste disposal system
  • Incubator
  • Heaters or brooders
  • Egg tray
  • Cages and coops


All you need to do is to know the price and functions of each item then decide for yourself which one you will need at the moment or in future times.

  • Buy day old chick: There won’t be no such thing as “poultry farming for beginners” until we stock up the farm. You will need to buy healthy day old chick also called D.O.C, from the good reputable hatchery or hatcheries and this could cost between #120 – #240 or more depending on the type of breeds and quality that you’re buying.


  • Investment Capital: Now that you have carried out every listed step mentioned above and drafted out your business plan, you will need to invest the required capital to set up your business.  Write down your detailed capital and investment requirements for your poultry farming for beginners in Nigeria and set out to get funds for it.


Like every other farming projects, the bigger you plan to start, the more investment you will need. You need to decide on the level of capital investment you are willing to commit into this business before you begin to involve yourself in its activities.

For instance, poultry farming business may require capital as follows:

(a) Small scale Chicken breeding (of about 50 birds) kept in cages at the backyard of your house will cost about NGN100, 000 to start.

(b) A medium scale poultry farming that requires land and housing and other materials in a space of 1 – 2 plots of Land costs about N600, 000 to NGN6 Million to begin.

(c) Large scale or Intensive poultry farming that requires high level of sophistication and more careful planning and professionalism, using advance Livestock farming tools and techniques takes from N11 Million.



poultry farm business

Setting up a profitable poultry farming business in Nigeria is as simple as drawing a circle but requires you have the background knowledge about it. If done properly, poultry farm business is a good way to create wealth while you enjoy doing what you love doing.

Don’t rely on your own experience or ideas alone, visit other farmers who possess the same business goals like you and also do not despise the rich knowledge our practical training kit will reveal to you in our poultry farming business manual and do not forget to purchase our well detailed poultry business plan. Both can be purchased by contacting us.

Share this training with your friends that will need it and comment your questions in the comment box provided below.

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  1. JamesDaw February 20, 2018
    • Martins February 20, 2018

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